01 November, 2009


PHASE-PHASE motor skills


Motor learning phase is a phase of motor skill acquisition manggambarkan state of a person in the conduct of sports movements.

Person's ability to be able to master the motor skills of different sports, which is caused by, among others:

* Differences ability and coordination owned condition
* The age difference
* Differences movement experiences
* Gender differences
* Differences cognitive
* Frequency of exercise, etc.

Distribution of the phases of motor learning is not based on age level, but on the level of a person's ability in mastering the skills of motor sport in executing movements.

General characteristics of the motor skills to learn first-degree phase

General characteristics of the motor phase of learning the first level is the mastery of motor skills in rough shape, someone who is at this phase is only able to perform movements that are required when circumstances and conditions of support.

Special features or a lot of views.

· Basic structure of these movements are shown in rough form.

· Rhythm of movement:

Errors caused by the rhythmic movement:

1. Individuals who learn do not have the experience and savings

2. Mengimpulskan have not been able to organize and staff according to the needs of working muscles yng.

· Relations movement

Relations movement of the parts grerakan than one limb to another limb still not well coordinated.

· Area movement

Due to its coordination capabilities that Karana is still not yet formed, thus the principle of efficiency and efektefitas both in terms of manpower, time and unused space can not be realized.

· Smoothness of movement / flow of movement

The flow of movement that appear are not maintained, that is still choked-sendat.kurangnya velocity and acceleration was due to the influence of impulse / power provided.

· Speed movement

Do not have a good speed of movement is still slow and stiff.

· Accuracy and constancy movement

Constancy, which movement is owned by individuals who are at the first level of this phase may be said there is no karenakemampuan owned unstable or can not be measured.

· Shadow motion

The image of a successful movement built by individuals who are at the first level phase is still incomplete

· Movements Program

It means a new movement program includes components that are general or movement of the essentials sajadan not detailed.

The characteristics of the receiving and processing capability to learn first-degree phase information.

The characteristics of the learning phase of the first level can be seen in the aspect of receiving and processing information.

In the execution of motor actions or movements there are five senses sports information recipients are: visual (sight), acoustic (reasoning), tactile (skin), kinestik (muscle), and vetibular (balance tool).

The five senses do not only play a role in receiving information but also play a role in acceptance of feedback, which is about the movement that is being lasted.

Based on this feedback can be controlled and regulations movements that are underway such as: the arrangement of power impulses, penmgaturan, and control arahgerakan.

Implications of the phase characteristics of the first level of motor learning in the learning process

physical education teacher's role is to determine the most keberkasilan learners in performing movements that are taught.


General characteristics of motor learning phase of this second level is the increasing mastery of fine coordination skills, such as the quality movement that carried out has increased.

The development of the learning process in this phase datandai by some progress and colored by some diproleh permasalahan.kemajuan-progress can be seen from the increasing quality of movement.

Special features of the second level of motor learning phase

The basic structure movement

The rhythm of movement

Relations movement

Area movement

The smoothness of movement

The speed of movement

Movement accuracy and constancy

Shadows and movement program

The characteristics of the ability of the receiving and processing information to learn the level of the second phase

In motor learning there are five senses receiver information including:

1. Eyes (Visueller Analyzer)
2. Leather (Taktiler Analyzer)
3. Muscles (Kinesthetischer Analyzer)
4. Ear (Akusticher Analyzer)
5. Balancing appliance that is located on the inner ear (Statico dynamisator)

The five senses of the recipient information was grouped into two groups:

1. A receiver of information from outside

Ie information coming from outside or from sipelaku environmental movement itself. Among them: eyes, ears and skin.

2. A receiver of information from the inside

That information comes from within the movement itself sipelaku of the course of both the ongoing movement. Among them: the muscles and staticodynamisator.

Phase characteristics of motor learning and its implications into the second level of the learning process

Learning phase, the second level requires a high learning activities, to be able to implement necessary preparations for the high of the intended participants didik.kesiapan antaralain:

* Readiness in conducting the exercise repetitions
* Readiness to accept the physical workload
* Readiness to fully concentrate
* As well as readiness to participate actively in the process of thinking

. So the major task of the physical education teacher in this case is to analyze the error-kasalahan movement that occurs in every phase gerakan.sehingga learners will always do the monitoring and readjustment deviations that occur during the movement lasted.

General characteristics of the three levels of motor learning phase

General characteristics of third-level learning phase can be described as follows:

Ability achievement someone who is at the third level learning phase is more stable, and stability of these achievements can be done with constant, although under the circumstances and conditions under which compounded palaksanaan movement.

The increase that occurred in various aspects antaralain:

· Improvements in anticipation of a situation and conditions

· Repair role kinentetik analyzer, so it can control and regulate impulses Pasa power muscles that work in accordance with the requirements

· Repair nindra role and function of receiver information

· Improvements in pengolahaninformasi received.

The next common feature of the phase stability of the third level of learning achievement or performance, individuals who are in this phase is able to do the same movements over and over again, while the quality of movement that appear on every time fairly constant repetition.

Special features of the third level of motor learning phase

Formation of automation capabilities

Shadows and shadow construction movement

The rhythm of movement

In the learning phase of this third level of the conduct of the movement looks more smooth and seamless, so that the movements performed quite efficient and effective both in terms of space usage, as well as time and energy.

The speed of movement

Special privileges that exist at the third level fese learning is the ability to manipulate other forms of deceptive gerakan.kemampuan to conduct proper motion can only be done by individuals who have the ability to anticipate situations and conditions that accurate.

The characteristics of the ability of the receiving and processing the information the third level of learning phase

Special characteristics of the receiving and processing capabilities of individual information that is in the learning phase of the third level is the increasing role and function of the analyzer information kinesthetic (muscle).

Other features of the ability of the receiving and processing information to learn the third phase is marked by the increasing role and function and sensitivity analyzer tools that others such as: eyes, skin, ears (staticodynamisator), then this phase individuals are able to receive feedback more numerous and detailed information about the course of a movement which was lasted well, and new completed.

Phase characteristics of the three levels of motor learning and its implications into the learning process

The third level is the learning phase, a phase to stabilize the fine coordination skills have been mastered.

Other forms of exercise that can be applied in the learning process for learners who are in this phase is an exercise in mental-traning form.

Mental exercises will assist students in improving:

· The ability to anticipate changes in circumstances that will occur and the effects of such changes

· The ability of the movement assessment

· The ability of carrying out the movement of economically, both in terms of time, energy, and

Non used

· Kemampuam assessment decisions

coordination of movement seen as a regulator of motor processes, especially to the working muscles is regulated through a system called the invitation persyarafan or intra muskulare koordination.

Motor coordination of work includes coordinating the muscles involved in an execution gerakan.pengkoordinasian are arranged in such a way by persyarafan system.

Which is set here are: adjustment of the components of power and speed needed by the muscles in the implementation of the motion in accordance view the needs of every part of the motion.

The basic structure movement

The word structure is defined simply as a certain arrangement of the structure can be interpreted as garak gerakan.atau structure can be translated as the basic structure of a movement or composition that always exist in the execution of a movement.

The rhythm of movement

Iram motion are characteristics that describe the accuracy of the implementation of parts of the motion with the dimensions of space and time is used or is needed at every movement.

To get the rhythm of the movement of good ability, basically should dalakukan exercises repeatedly against the forms of the same movement

Relations movement

Movement relationship is: suatui impulse energy transfer process of a other parts of the body or the transfer of impulses from one tool to the tool motion lain.sehingga motion occurs relations movement.

Indicators that can be observed from the movement of an imperfect relationship is:

* The occurrence of excess movement that resulted in unnecessary disruption of impulse transfer energy to the movement
* Excess movement caused olehimpuls given too much power than necessary.
* Area of movement

Size is movement: the extent of the unused space or trajectory in the implementation of a movement.

Indicators that can be observed to know the broad movement errors include:

* Use wide movement for the implementation of a motion is unstable
* Frequency of movements that are too low can be caused because the room is used for the execution of a movement is too broad, sehinggawaktu also required excessive than necessary
* Frequency of movements that are too high for example in running or swimming can be caused by an unused room is too narrow
* The rhythm of movement is not constant

The smoothness of movement

The cause of the error motion or movement is not smooth: the ability condition (strength, speed, and endurance) and coordination capabilities are still lacking, as well as incomplete, mengertian lack of information about the movements of individuals who have dalaksanakan.

The smoothness of movement or flow of movement is a characteristic that describes the continuity of the course of a movement.

To be able to see the smooth movement, indicators that can be observed are:

· Continuity way movement

· Velocity or acceleration of movement (too fast or too slow)

The speed of movement

In the conduct of a movement, speed is one of the main features of the coordination of movement perlumendapatkan attention, it is because the speed will determine the results to be achieved.

To be able to utilize an optimal speed of movement was greatly influenced by several aspects such as: the ability to anticipate the movements, fluency of movement and motion relationships.

Movement accuracy and constancy

The accuracy and constancy movement once crucial to the result to be achieved in the implementation of the movement.

Accuracy of movement in terms of the process are: the accuracy of the course of a series of nice views of the structure of the movement in the movement and views from the systematics of the movement.

While assessments of products are: a result obtained from aktivfitas or gerakn.

According MEINEL (1977, HAL 180) defines the accuracy or correctness movement as a union between movement planning with the results obtained. His understanding is that each execution of the movement is always preceded by a movement that is planned on the central nervous system.

SUMBER: http://artikel-olahraga.blogspot.com/2008_01_29_archive.html


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